CDRI Pioneers a Biennial Report on ‘Global Infrastructure Resilience:
Capturing the Resilience Dividend’
The Report sheds light on the ‘Resilience Dividend: The comprehensive set of
advantages gained from investing in infrastructure capable of withstanding
disasters and climate change
The Report includes the first-ever publicly available fully probabilistic risk
model – the Global Infrastructure Risk Model and Resilience Index (GIRI) which
highlights that the global Average Annual Loss (AAL) in infrastructure sectors
and buildings is now in a range of US$732 – US$845 billion taking into account
climate change, which implies that 14% of 2021 – 2022 GDP growth is at risk
The Report highlights that the annual investment required to address the
infrastructure deficit, achieve the SDGs, achieve net zero, and strengthen
resilience by 2050 amount to $9.2 trillion, of which $2.84 – $2.90 trillion must be
invested in LMICs
Madurai, Oct. 2023
The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) launched its flagship initiative –
Biennial Report on Global Infrastructure Resilience: Capturing the Resilience Dividend.
The Report was released by Shri Kiren Rijiju, Union Cabinet Minister, Ministry of Earth
Sciences, Government of India, at a high-level event.
The Report presents a compelling economic, financial, and political imperative for
investing in resilience, based on a new cutting-edge Global Infrastructure Risk Model
and Resilience Index (GIRI). GIRI is the first publicly available and fully probabilistic
risk model to estimate risk for infrastructure assets with respect to most major
geological and climate-related hazards.
Commenting on the significance of the Biennial Report, Amit Prothi, Director General,
CDRI said, “The Report brings together a unique body of evidence to unpackage the
‘Resilience Dividend’ making a compelling economic, political, and financial case to
radically upscale investment in infrastructure. It lays out the challenges which when
addressed can become the pathways to resilient infrastructure.”
Kamal Kishore, Member and HoD, NDMA and Co-Chair Executive Committee,
CDRI said, “The Report is accompanied by a tool which countries can use to do deep
dive analysis to inform their decision making, inform their infrastructure investment
decisions, invest in resilience, and build infrastructure systems that last long and serve
generations to come.”
The Report emphasizes on Nature-based Infrastructure Solutions (NbIS) as a novel
and pragmatic approach for infrastructure resilience, along with the need to facilitate
development of coherent National Resilient strategies and project pipelines that
effectively transform risk into resilience.
The Coordinating Lead Author of the Report, Andrew Maskrey said, “Governments
can use this Report to understand the risk they face, and to realize that it is critical to
ensure that all future infrastructure is fully resilient. The Report takes climate change
into account and provides recommendations on strengthening resilience.”
Amee Misra, Senior Economist and Head of Policy, UNDP in India said, “With its
comprehensive analysis of infrastructure resilience for every country, the Global
Infrastructure Resilience Report is poised to inform the development of national
resilience policies, strategies, and plans.”
Analyzing 9 infrastructure sectors across 6 hazard types, some of the Key Findings of
the Report reveal that:
Approx. 30% of the AAL is associated with hazards like earthquakes & tsunamis
whereas 70% is associated with climate related hazards like cyclones, floods,
The risk is not spread equally across sectors – approx. 80% of the risk is
concentrated in the power, transport, and telecommunications sectors.
Capital investment in an infrastructure asset only accounts for 15 – 30% of
overall expenditure over its design lifecycle while up to 70 – 85 % of the
expenditure is attributable to O&M.
Average costs of Nature-based Infrastructure Systems (NbIS) are only 51% of
grey infrastructure projects.
Countries with the largest infrastructure deficit also carry the highest risk.
67% of the global value of infrastructure assets is concentrated in high-income
countries. Upper and lower middle-income countries account for 24.8% & 7.0%,
and low-income countries for 0.6 %. However, Low-and Middle-Income Countries
(LMICs) carry the highest relative risk with a relative AAL of between 0.31 and
0.41 % compared to 0.14 % in high income countries.
High-income countries could witness an increase in AAL by 11% due to climate
change; the figure could increase by 12 to 22% in middle-income and 33% in
CDRI places this Report at the service of governments, investors, and other
stakeholders with an intention to further the dialogue on how to implement its key
recommendations and for deepening global collaboration towards the common goal of
strengthening infrastructure resilience.